Mirza Ghalib

<p style=”text-align: justify;”>Mirza Ghalib was born as Mirza Asadullah  Beg Khan on  27 Dec 1797. He was the preeminent poet of Urdu and Persian language during the last years of Mughal empire. He died on 15 Feb 1867.

Personal Details of  Mirza Ghalib :-

Mirza Ghalib was born in Kala Mahal, Agra into a family descended from Aibak Turks who moved to Samarkand(in modern-day Uzbekistan) after the downfall of the Seljuk kings. His paternal grandfather, Mirza Qoqan Baig Khan, was a Saljuq Turk who had immigrated to India from Samarkand during the reign of Ahmad Shah (1748–54). He worked at Lahore, Delhi and Jaipur. And awarded the subdistrict of Pahasu (Bulandshahr, UP) and finally settled in Agra, UP, India. He had four sons and three daughters. Mirza Abdullah Baig Khan and Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan were two of his sons. Mirza Abdullah Baig Khan (Ghalib’s father) married Izzat-ut-Nisa Begum, an ethnic Kashmiri, and then lived at the house of his father-in-law.

He died in a war when Ghalib was a little over 5 years of age. He raised first by his Uncle Mirza Nasrullah Baig Khan.At the age of thirteen. Ghalib married Umrao Begum, daughter of Nawab Ilahi Bakhsh (brother of the Nawab of Ferozepur Jhirka). He soon moved to Delhi, along with his younger brother, Mirza Yousuf Khan, who had developed schizophrenia at a young age and later died in Delhi during the chaos of 1857. In accordance with upper class Muslim tradition, he had an arranged marriage at the age of 13, but none of his seven children survived beyond infancy. After his marriage he settled in Delhi.

He died in Delhi on 15 February 1869. The house where he lived in Gali Qasim  Jaan,  Ballimaran, Chandni Chowk, in Old Delhi known as the Ghalib ki Haveli has now  turned into ‘Ghalib Memorial’ and houses a permanent Ghalib exhibition.

LITERARY CAREER :

Mirza Ghalib started composing poetry at the age of 11. His first language was Urdu, but Persian and Turkish were also spoken at home. He received an education in Persian and Arabic at a young age. When Ghalib in his early teens, a newly converted Muslim tourist from Iran (Abdus Samad, originally named Hormuzd, a Zoroastrian) came to Agra. He stayed at Ghalib’s home for two years and taught him Persian, Arabic, philosophy, and logic. Ghalib poem in Nastaliq. Although Mirza Ghalib himself was far prouder of his poetic achievements in Persian. He is today more famous for his Urdu ghazals. Numerous elucidations of Ghalib’s ghazal compilations have  written by Urdu scholars. The first such elucidation or Sharh written by Ali Haider Nazm Tabatabai of Hyderabad during the rule of the last Nizam of Hyderabad.

Before Ghalib, the ghazal was primarily an expression of anguished love; but Mirza Ghalib expressed philosophy. The travails and mysteries of life and wrote ghazals on many other subjects, vastly expanding the scope of the ghazal. Love poetry in Urdu from the last quarter of the seventeenth century on wards consists mostly of “poems about love” and not “love poems” in the Western sense of the term. The first complete English translation of Ghalib’s ghazals Love Sonnets of Ghalib, written by Sarfaraz K. Niazi.

PEN NAME: His original Takhallus (pen-name) was Asad, drawn from his given name, Asadullah Khan. At some point early in his poetic career he also decided to adopt the pen-name of Ghalib (meaning all conquering, superior, most excellent). At some places in his poetry Ghalib also used the pen name of Asad Ullah Khan.

Mirza Ghalib ‘s grave:

Ghalib buried in Hazrat Nizamuddin near the tomb of Nizamuddin Auliya. The side view of Mazar-e-Ghalib shown in the image.

“  maze jahaan ke apnee nazar meiN KHaak naheeN

siwaa-e-KHoon-e-jigar, so jigar meiN KHaak naheeN  ”

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